Journal Articles

Entries are ordered chronologically, then alphabetically by author.

Kemeny, Cavanaugh, Foltz, Ekman, et al. (In review). Effects of Meditation and Emotion Regulation Training on Psychological and Physiological Responses to Social Threat.

Kemeney, M. E., Foltz, C., Cavanagh, J. F., Cullen, M., Giese-Davis, J., Jennings, P., . . . Ekman, P. (2012). Contemplative/emotion training reduces negative emotional behavior and promotes prosocial responses. Emotion, 12(2), 338-350. doi:10.1037/a0026118

Ekman, P. (2010). Darwin’s Compassionate View of Human Nature. JAMA, 303(6), 557-558.

Ekman, P. (2009). Become Versed in Reading Faces. Entrepreneur. Retrieved from http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/200934.

Ekman, P. (2009). Lie Catching and Micro Expressions. In Martin, C. (Ed.), The Philosophy of Deception. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Frank, M. G., Matsumoto, D., Ekman, P. Sinuk, K., Kurylo, A. (2008). Improving the Ability to Recognize Micro Expressions of Emotion. In Review.

Kendler, K. S., Halberstadt, L. J., Butera, F., Myers, J., Bouchard, T., & Ekman, P. (2008). The similarity of facial expressions in response to emotion-inducing films in reared-apart twins. Psychological Medicine, 38 (10), 1475-1483. doi:10.1017/S0033291707001535

Tsiamyrtzis, P., Dowdall, J., Shastri, D., Pavlidis, I. T., Frank, M. G., & Ekman, P. (2007). Imaging Facial Physiology for the Detection of Deceit. International Journal of Computer Vision, 71(2), 197-214.

Ekman, P. & O’Sullivan, M. (2006). From Flawed Self-Assessment to Blatant Whoppers: The Utility of Voluntary and Involuntary Behavior in Detecting Deception. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 24(5), 673-686.

Levenson, R.W. (2006). Inside the Psychologist’s Studio [Paul Ekman interviewed by Robert W. Levenson]. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1(3), 270-276.

Ekman, P., Davidson, R. J., Ricard, M., & Wallace, B. A. (2005). Buddhist and Psychological Perspectives on Emotions and Well-Being. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14(2), 59-63.

Frank M. G. & Ekman, P. (2004). Nonverbal Detection of Deception in Forensic Contexts. In O’Donohue, W. T. & Levensky, E. R. (Eds.), Handbook of Forensic Psychology: Resource for Mental Health and Legal Professionals (pp. 635-653). New York, NY: Elsevier Science.

O’Sullivan, M. & Ekman, P. (2004). The wizards of deception detection. In Granhag, P. & Strömwall, L. (Eds.), The detection of deception in forensic contexts (pp. 269–286). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Ekman, P., (2003). Darwin, Deception, and Facial Expression. In Ekman, P., Campos, J. J., Davidson, R. J., & de Waal, F. B. M. (Eds.), Emotions inside out: 130 years after Darwin’s: The expression of the emotions in man and animals (pp. 205-221). New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences.

Ekman, P. (2003). Emotions revealed: Recognizing faces and feelings to improve communication and emotional life. New York: Times Books (US). London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson (world).

Ekman, P. (2003). Sixteen Enjoyable Emotions. Emotion Researcher, 18, 6-7.

Ekman, P. (2003). “Would You Lie To Me?” The Observer. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2003/apr/27/ukcrime9

Feinberg, S. E., Blascovich, J. J., Cacioppo, J. T., Davidson, R. J., Ekman, P., Faigman, D. L., . . . Swets, J. A. (2003). The Polygraph and Lie Detection. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.

Keltner, D. & Ekman, P. (2003). Intoduction: Expression of Emotion. In Davidson, R. J., Scherer, K. R., & Goldsmith H. H. (Eds.), Handbook of Affective Sciences (pp. 411-414). New York: Oxford University Press.

Keltner, D., Ekman, P., Gonzaga, G. C., Beer, J. (2003). Facial Expression of Emotion. In Davidson, R. J., Scherer, K. R., & Goldsmith, H. H. (Eds.), Handbook of Affective Sciences (pp. 415-432). New York: Oxford University Press.

Levenson, R. W. & Ekman, P. (2002). Difficulty Does Not Account for Emotion-Specific Heart Rate Changes in the Directed Facial Action Task. Psychophysiology, 39, 397-405.

Ekman, P. (2001). Facial expressions. In Blakemore, C. & Jennett, S. (Eds.), Oxford Companion to the Body. London: Oxford University Press.

Ekman, P. (2001). Frowning. In Blakemore, C. & Jennett, S. (Eds.), Oxford Companion to the Body. London: Oxford University Press.

Ekman, P. (2001). Smiling. In Blakemore, C. & Jennett, S. (Eds.), Oxford Companion to the Body. London: Oxford University Press.

Rosenberg, E. L., Ekman, P., Jiang, W., Babyak, M., Coleman, R. E., Hanson, M., . . . O’Connor, C. (2001). Linkages Between Facial Expressions of Anger and Transient Myocardial Ischemia in Men With Coronary Artery Disease. Emotion, 1(2), 107-115.

Ruch, W. & Ekman, P. (2001). The Expressive Pattern of Laughter. In Kaszniak, A. W. (Ed.) Emotion, qualia, and consciousness (pp. 426-433). Tokyo: World Scientific Publisher.

Bugental, D. B., Shennum, W., Frank, M., & Ekman, P. (2000). “True Lies”: Children’s Abuse History and Power Attributions as Influences on Deception Detection. In Manusov, V. & Harvey, J. H. (Eds.), Attribution, Communication Behavior, and Close Relationships (pp. 248-265). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

Etcoff, N. L., Ekman, P., Magee, J. J., & Frank, M. G. (2000). Lie Detection and Language Comprehension. Nature, 405, 139.

Keltner, D. & Ekman, P. (2000). Facial Expression of Emotion. In Lewis, M. & Haviland-Jones, J. (Eds.), Handbook of emotions, 2nd edition (pp. 236-249). New York: Guilford Publications, Inc.

Matsumoto, D., LeRoux, J., Wilson-Cohn, C., Raroque, J., Kooken, K., Ekman, P, . . . Goh, A. (2000). A New Test to Measure Emotion Recognition Ability: Matsumoto and Ekman’s Japanese and Caucasian Brief Affect Recognition Test (JACBART). Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 24(3), 179-209.

Bartlett, M. S., Hager, J. C., Ekman, P., & Sejnowski, T. J. (1999). Measuring Facial Expressions By Computer Image Analysis. Psychophysiology, 36(2), 253-263.

Ekman, P. (1999). Basic Emotions. In Dalgleish, T. & Power, M. J. (Eds.), Handbook of Cognition and Emotion (pp. 45-60). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Ekman, P. (1999). Emotional and Conversational Nonverbal Signals. In Messing, L. S. & Campbell, R. (Eds.), Gesture, Speech, and Sign (pp. 45-55). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Ekman, P. (1999). Facial Expressions. In Dalgleish, T. & Power, M. J. (Eds.), The Handbook of Cognition and Emotion (pp. 301-320). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Ekman, P., O’Sullivan, M., & Frank, M. G. (1999). A Few Can Catch a Liar. Psychological Science, 10(3), 263-266.

Ekman, P. (1998). Introduction To The Third Edition. In Ekman, P. (Ed.), The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animal (3rd ed., pp. xxi-xxxvi). New York: Oxford University Press.

Ekman, P. (1998). Universality of Emotional Expression? A Personal History of the Dispute. In Ekman, P. (Ed.), The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (3rd ed., pp. 363-393). New York: Oxford University Press.

Rosenberg. E. L., Ekman, P., & Blumenthal, J. A. (1998). Facial expression and the affective component of cynical hostility in male coronary heart disease patients. Health Psychology, 17(4), 376-380.

Ekman, P. (1997). Deception, Lying and Demeanor. In Halpern, D. F. & Voiskounsky, A. E., States of Mind: American and Post-Soviet Perspectives on Contemporary Issues in Psychology (pp. 93-105). New York: Oxford University Press.

Ekman, P. (1997). Emotion families. In Rauch, I. & Carr, G. F. (Eds.), Semiotics Around the World: Synthesis In Diversity (pp. 191-193). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Ekman, P. (1997). Expressive Behavior and the Recovery of a Traumatic Memory: Comments on the Videotapes of Jane Doe. Child Maltreatment, 2(2), 113-116.

Ekman, P. (1997). Expression or Communication About Emotion? In Segal, G. E. & Weisfeld, C. C. (Eds.), Uniting Psychology and Biology: Integrative Perspectives on Human Development (pp. 315-338). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Ekman, P. (1997). Should We Call It Expression Or Communication? Innovation, 10(4), 333-344. (Special Issue edited by Angelika Kofler).

Ekman, P. (1997). What We Have Learned by Measuring Facial Behavior. In Ekman, P. & Rosenberg, E. L. (Eds.), What the Face Reveals (pp. 469-485). New York: Oxford University Press.

Ekman, P., Matsumoto, D. R., & Friesen, W. V. (1997). Facial Expression in Affective Disorders. In Ekman, P. & Rosenberg, E. L. (Eds.), What the Face Reveals (pp. 331-342). New York: Oxford University Press.

Frank, M. G. & Ekman, P. (1997). The Ability to Detect Deceit Generalizes Across Different Types of High-Stake Lies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72(6), 1429-1439.

Biehl, M., Matsumoto, D., Ekman, P., Hearn, V., Heider, K., Kudoh, T., & Ton, V. (1997). Matsumoto and Ekman’s Japanese and Caucasian Facial Expressions of Emotion (JACFEE): Reliability data and cross-national differences. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 21(1), 3-21.

Ekman, P. & Keltner, D. (1997). Universal facial expressions of emotion: An old controversy and new findings. In Segerstråle, U. C. & Molnár, P. (Eds.), Nonverbal communication: Where nature meets culture (pp. 27-46). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Ekman, P. (1997). Lying and Deception. In Stein, N. L., Ornstein, P. A., Tversky, B., & Brainerd, C. (Eds.), Memory for Everyday and Emotional Events (pp. 333-347). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bartlett, M. S., Viola, P. A., Sejnowski, T. J., Golomb, B. A., Larsen, J., Hager, J. C., & Ekman, P. (1996). Classifying Facial Action. In Touretzky, D., Mozer, M., and Hasselmo, M. (Eds.), Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 8 (pp. 823-829). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Ekman, P. (1996). A Lingua Franca Of Facial Expressions. Demos, 10, 37-38.

Ekman, P. (1996). Why don’t we catch liars? Social Research, 63(3), 801-817.

Frank, M. G. & Ekman, P. (1996). Physiological Effects of the Smile. Directions in Psychiatry, 16(25), 1-8.

Keltner, D. & Ekman, P. (1996). Affective Intensity and Emotional Responses. Cognition and Emotion, 10(3), 323-328.

Rosenberg, E. L. & Ekman, P. (1995). Conceptual and Methodological Issues in the Judgement of Facial Expressions of Emotion. Motivation and Emotion, 19(2), 111-138.

Ekman, P. (1994). All Emotions Are Basic. In Ekman, P. & Davidson, R. (Eds.), The Nature of Emotion: Fundamental Questions (pp. 15-19). New York: Oxford University Press.

Ekman, P. (1994). Antecedent Events and Emotion Metaphors. In Ekman, P. & Davidson, R. (Eds.), The Nature of Emotion: Fundamental Questions (pp. 146-149). New York: Oxford University Press.

Ekman, P. (1994). Moods, Emotions, and Traits. In Ekman, P. & Davidson, R. (Eds.), The Nature of Emotion: Fundamental Questions (pp. 56-58). New York: Oxford University Press.

Ekman, P. (1994). Strong Evidence For Universals In Facial Expression: A reply to Russell’s mistaken critique. Psychological Bulletin, 115(2), 268-287.

Ekman, P. & Davidson, R. J. (1994). Affective Science: A Research Agenda. In Ekman, P. & Davidson, R. (Eds.), The Nature of Emotion: Fundamental Questions (pp. 411-430). New York: Oxford University Press.

Matsumoto, D. & Ekman, P. (1994). Commentary on “A New Series of Slides Depicting Facial Expressions of Affect” by Mazurski and Bond (1993). Australian Journal of Psychology, 46(1), 58.

Rosenberg, E. L. & Ekman, P. (1994). Coherence between Expressive and Experiential System of Emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 8(3), 201-229.

Ekman, P. (1993). Facial Expression and Emotion. American Psychologist, 48(4), 384-392.

Ekman, P. & Davidson, R. J. (1993). Voluntary Smiling Changes Regional Brain Activity. Psychological Science, 4(5), 342-345.

Ekman, P. & Frank, M. G. (1993). Lies That Fail. In Lewis, M. & Saarni, C. (Eds.), Lying and deception in everyday life (pp. 184-200). New York: Guilford Press.

Ekman, P. & O’Sullivan, M. (1993). Who is misleading whom? A reply to Nickerson and Hammond. American Psychologist, 48(9), 989-990.

Frank, M. G. and Ekman, P. (1993). Not All Smiles Are Created Equal: The Differences Between Enjoyment and Nonenjoyment Smiles. Humor, 6(1), 9-26.

Frank. M. G., Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1993). Behavioral markers and recognizability of the Smile of Enjoyment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64(1), 83-93.

Rosenberg, E. L. & Ekman, P. (1993). Facial Expression and Emotion. Neuroscience year: Supplement 3 to the Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, 51-52.

Ekman, P. (1992). An Argument for Basic Emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 6(3/4), 169-200.

Ekman, P. (1992). Are There Basic Emotions? Psychological Review, 99(3), 550-553.

Ekman, P. (1992). Facial expressions of emotion: An old controversy and new findings. In Bruce, V., Cowey, A., Ellis, A. W., & Perrett, D. I. (Eds.), Processing the Facial Image (pp. 63-69). New York, NY: Clarendon Press/Oxford University Press.

Ekman, P. (1992). Facial expressions of emotion: New findings, new questions. Psychological Science, 3(1), 34-38.

Ekman, P. (1992). Proposed Instructions to Juries about Judging Credibility. University of San Francisco.

Levenson, R. W., Ekman, P., Heider, K., & Friesen, W. V. (1992). Emotion and Autonomic Nervous System Activity in the Minangkabau of West Sumatra. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62(6), 972-988.

Ekman, P., & O’Sullivan M. (1991). Facial expression: methods, means, and moues. In Feldman, R. S. &. Rimé, B. (Eds.), Fundamentals of Nonverbal Behavior (pp. 163-199). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ekman, P. & O’Sullivan, M. (1991). Who Can Catch A Liar?. American Psychologist, 46(9), 913-920.

Ekman, P., O’Sullivan, M., Friesen, W. V., & Scherer, K. R. (1991). Invited Article: Face, Voice, and Body in Detecting Deceit. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 15(2), 125-135.

Ekman, P., O’Sullivan, M., & Matsumoto, D. (1991). Confusions About Context in the Judgement of Facial Expression: A Reply to “The Contempt Expression and the Relativity Thesis”. Motivation and Emotion, 15(2), 169-176.

Ekman, P., O’Sullivan, M., & Matsumoto, D. (1991). Contradictions in the Study of Contempt: What’s It All About? Reply to Russell. Motivation and Emotion, 15(4), 293-296.

Matsumoto, D., Ekman, P., & Fridlund, A. (1991). Analyzing Nonverbal Behavior. In Dowrick, P. W. (Ed.), Practical Guide to Using Video in the Behavioral Sciences (pp. 153-165). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Levenson, R. W., Carstensen, L. L., Friesen, W. V., & Ekman, P. (1991). Emotion, Physiology, and Expression in Old Age. Psychology and Aging, 6(1), 28-35.

Chesney, M. A., Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., Black, G. W., & Hecker, M. H. L. (1990). Type A Behavior Pattern: Behavior and Speech Components. Psychosomatic Medicine, 53, 307-319.

Davidson, R. J., Ekman, P., Saron, C. D., Senulis, J. A., & Friesen, W. V. (1990). Approach-Withdrawal and Cerebral Asymmetry: Emotional Expression and Brain Physiology I. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(2), 330-341.

Ekman, P. (1990). Duchenne and facial expression of emotion. In Cuthbertson, R. A. (Ed. and Transl.), The Mechanism of Human Facial Expression (pp. 270-284). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ekman, P., Davidson, R. J., & Friesen, W. V. (1990). The Duchenne Smile: Emotional Expression and Brain Physiology II. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(2), 342-353.

Levenson, R. W., Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1990). Voluntary Facial Action Generates Emotion-Specific Autonomic Nervous System Activity. Psychophysiology, 27(4), 363-384.

Zoccolotti, P., Caltagirone, C., Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. (1990). Methodological questions on the study of spontaneous emotional responding as compared to non verbal communication in brain damaged patients: Comments on Buck’s reply (1989). Cortex: A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior, 26(2), 281-289.

Caltagirone, C., Ekman, P., Friesen, W., Gainotti, G. (1989). Posed emotional expression in unilateral brain damaged patients. Cortex: A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior, 25(4), 653-663.

Ekman, P. (1989). The Argument and Evidence about Universals in Facial Expression of Emotion. In Wagner, H. & Manstead, A. (Eds.), Handbook of Social Psychophysiology (pp. 143-164). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Ekman, P. (1989). Why Lies Fail and What Behaviors Betray A lie. In Yuille, J. C. (Ed.), Credibility Assessment (pp. 71-81). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Ekman, P. & O’Sullivan, M. (1989). Hazards in Detecting Deceit. In Raskin, D. C. (Ed.), Psychological Methods in Criminal Investigation and Evidence (pp. 297-332). New York: Springer Publishing Company.

Matsumoto, D. & Ekman, P. (1989). American-Japanese Cultural Differences in Intensity Ratings of Facial Expressions of Emotion. Motivation and Emotion, 13(2), 143-157.

Ekman. P. (1988). Lying and Nonverbal Behavior Theoretical Issues and New Findings. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 12(3), 163-175.

Ekman, P. (1988). Self-Deception and Detection of Misinformation. In Lockhard, J. S. & Paulhus, D. L. (Eds.), Self-Deception: An Adaptive Mechanism? (pp. 229-250). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Ekman, P. & Friesen, W. V. (1988). Who Knows What About Contempt: A Reply To Izard And Haynes. Motivation and Emotion, 12(1), 17-22.

Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., & O’Sullivan, M. (1988). Smiles When Lying. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(3), 414-420.

Ekman, P. & Heider, K. G. (1988). The Universality of a Contempt Expression: A Replication.
Motivation and Emotion, 12(3), 303-308.

O’Sullivan, M., Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1988). The Effect of Comparisons on Detecting Deceit. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 12(3). 203-215.

Mammucari, A., Caltagirone, C., Ekman, P., Friesen, W., Gainotti, G., Pizzamiglio, L., & Zoccolotti, P. (1988). Spontaneous Facial Expression of Emotions in Brain-Damaged Patients. Cortex, 24, 521-533.

Ekman, P. (1987). A Life’s Pursuit. In Sebeok, T. A. & Umiker-Sebeok, J. (Eds.), The Semiotic Web ’86. An International Yearbook (pp. 4-46). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., O’Sullivan, M., Chan, A., Diacoyanni-Tarlatzis, I., Heider, K., . . . Tzavaras, A. (1987). Universals and Cultural Differences in the Judgment of Facial Expressions of Emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53(4), 712-717.

Ekman, P. & Fridlund, A. J. (1987). Assessment of Facial Behavior in Affective Disorders. In Maser, J. D. (Ed.), Depression and Expressive Behavior (pp. 37-56). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Ekman, P., & O’Sullivan, M. (1987). The Role of Context in Interpreting Facial Expression: Comment on Russell and Fehr. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 117(1), 86-88.

Fridlund, A. J., Ekman, P., & Oster, H. (1987). Facial Expressions of Emotion: Review of Literature, 1970-1983. In Siegman, A. W. & Feldstein, S. (Eds.), Nonverbal Behavior and Communication (pp. 143-224). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Pizzamiglio, L., Caltagirone, C., Mammucari, A., Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. Imitation of Facial Movements in Brain Damaged Patients. Cortex, 23, 207-221.

Ekman, P. & Friesen, W. V. (1986). A New Pan-Cultural Facial Expression of Emotion. Motivation and Emotion, 10(2), 159-168.

Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., & Simons, R. C. (1985). Is the Startle Reaction an Emotion? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49(5), 1416-1426.

Hager, J. C., & Ekman, P. (1985). The Asymmetry of Facial Actions is Inconsistent with Models of Hemispheric Specialization. Psychophysiology, 22(3), 307-318.

O’Sullivan, M., Ekman, P., Friesen, W., & Scherer, K. (1985). What You Say and How You Say It: The Contribution of Speech Content and Voice Quality to Judgments of Others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48(1), 54-62.

Ekman, P. (1984). Expression and the Nature of Emotion. In Scherer, K. & Ekman, P. (Eds.), Approaches to Emotion (pp. 319-343). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Ekman, P. & Scherer, K. R. (1984). Questions about emotion: An Introduction. In Scherer, K. & Ekman, P. (Eds.), Approaches to Emotion, (pp. 1-8). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Ekman, P., Levenson, R. W., & Friesen, W. V. (1983). Autonomic Nervous System Activity Distinguishes Among Emotions. Science, 221(4616), 1208-1210.

Hager, J. C. & Ekman, P. (1983). The Inner and Outer Meanings of Facial Expressions. In Cacioppo, J. T. & Petty, R. E. (Eds.), Social Psychophysiology (pp. 287-306). New York: Guilford Press.

Ekman, P. (1982). Facial Expression and Facial Nerve Surgery. In Graham, M. D. & House, W. F. (Eds.), Disorders of the Facial Nerve (pp. 363-368). New York: Raven Press.

Ekman, P. (1982). Methods for Measuring Facial Action. In Scherer, K. R. & Ekman, P. (Eds.),
Handbook of Methods in Nonverbal Behavior Research (pp. 45-90). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Ekman, P. & Friesen, W. V. (1982). Felt, False, and Miserable Smiles. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 6(4), 238-252.

Scherer, K. R. & Ekman, P. (1982). Methodological issues in studying nonverbal behavior. In Scherer, K. R. & Ekman, P. (Eds.), Handbook of Methods in Nonverbal Behavior Research (pp. 1-45). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Ekman, P. (1981). Mistakes When Deceiving. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 364, 269-278.

Ekman, P., Hager, J. C., & Friesen, W. V. (1981). The Symmetry of Emotional and Deliberate Facial Actions. Psychophysiology, 18(2), 101-106.

Hager, J. C. & Ekman, P. (1981). Methodological Problems in Tourangeau and Ellsworth’s study of Facial Expression and Experience of Emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40(2), 358- 362.

Ekman, P. (1980). Asymmetry in Facial Expression. Science, 209, 833-834.

Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., & Ancoli, S. (1980). Facial Signs of Emotional Experience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39(6), 1125-1134.

Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., O’Sullivan, M., & Scherer, K. (1980). Relative Importance of Face, Body, and Speech in Judgments of Personality and Affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38(2), 270-277.

Ekman, P., Roper, G., & Hager, J. C. (1980). Deliberate Facial Movement. Child Development, 51, 886-891.

Ekman, P. (1979). About brows: emotional and conversational signals. In von Cranach, M., Foppa, K., Lepenies, W., & Ploog, D. (Eds.), Human ethology (pp. 169-249). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ekman, P., Brattesani, K. A., O’Sullivan, M., & Friesen, W. V. (1979). Does Image Size Affect Judgements of the Face? Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 4(1), 57-61.

Ekman, P. & Oster, H. (1979). Facial Expressions of Emotion. Annual Review of Psychology, 30, 527-554.

Friesen, W. V., Ekman, P., & Wallbott, H. (1979). Measuring Hand Movements. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 4(2), 97-112.

Hager, J. C. & Ekman, P. (1979). Long-Distance Transmission of Facial Affect Signals.
Ethology and Sociobiology, 1, 77-82.

Ekman P. (1978). Facial Signs: Facts, Fantasies, and Possibilities. In Sebeok, T. (Ed.), Sight, Sound, and Sense (pp. 124-156). Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Oster, H. & Ekman, P. (1978). Facial Behavior in Child Development. In Collins, W. A. (Ed.), Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology Volume 11 (pp. 231-276). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Ekman P. (1977). Biological and Cultural Contributions to Body and Facial Movement. In Blacking, J. (Ed.), The Anthropology of the Body (pp. 34-84). London: Academic Press.

Ekman, P. (1977). Facial Expression. In Siegman, A. & Feldstein, S. (Eds.), Nonverbal Communication and Behavior (pp. 97-126). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Association.

Ekman P. (1977). What’s In A Name? Journal of Communication, 27(1), 237-239.

Ekman, P. & Friesen, W. V. (1977). Nonverbal Behavior. In Ostwald, P. F. (Ed.), Communication and Social Interaction (pp. 37-46). New York: Grune & Stratton.

Ekman, P. (1976). Movements with Precise Meanings. Journal of Communication, 26(3), 14-26.

Ekman, P. & Friesen, W. V. (1976). Measuring Facial Movement. Environmental Psychology and Nonverbal Behavior, 1(1), 56-75.

Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., & Scherer, K. R. (1976). Body Movement and Violence Pitch in Deceptive Interaction. Semiotica, 16(1), 23-27.

Harrison, R. & Ekman, P. (1976). TV’s Last Frontier: South Africa. Journal of Communication, 26(1), 102-109.

Johnson, H. G., Ekman, P., Friesen, W., Nyhan, W. L., & Shear, C. (1976). A Behavioral Phenotype in the de Lange Syndrome. Pediatric Research, 10, 843-850.

Boucher, J. D. & Ekman, P. (1975). Facial Areas and Emotional Information. Journal of Communication, 25(2), 21-29.

Johnson, H. G., Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1975). Communicative Body Movements: American Emblems. Semiotica, 15(4), 335-353.

Ekman, P. & Friesen W. V. (1974). Detecting Deception from the Body or Face. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 29(3), 288-298.

Ekman, P. & Friesen, W. V. (1974). Nonverbal Behavior and Psychopathology. In Friedman, R. J. & Katz, M. M. (Eds.), The Psychology of Depression: Contemporary Theory and Research (pp. 203-232). Washington, D.C.: Winston & Sons.

Ekman, P. (1972). Universals and Cultural Differences in Facial Expressions of Emotions. In Cole, J. (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (pp. 207-282). Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press.

Ekman, P. & Friesen W. V. (1972). Hand Movements. Journal of Communication, 22, 353-374.

Ekman, P., Liebert, R. M., Friesen, W. V., Harrison, R., Zlatchin, C., Malmstrom, E. J., & Baron, R. A. (1972). Facial Expressions of Emotion while Watching Televisied Violence as Predictors of Subsequent Aggression. In Comstock, G. A., Rubinstein, E. A., & Murray, J. P. (Eds.), Television and Social Behavior, Vol. V: Television’s Effects: Further Explorations (pp. 22-58). Washington, D.C.: U. S. Government Printing Office.

Ekman, P. & Friesen, W. V. (1971). Constants Across Cultures in the Face and Emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 17(2), 124-129.

Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., & Tomkins, S. S. (1971). Facial Affect Scoring Technique: A First Validity Study. Semiotica, 3, 37-58.

Ekman, P. (1970). Universal Facial Expressions of Emotions. California Mental Health Research Digest, 8(4), 151-158.

Ekman, P. & Friesen, W. V. (1969). A Tool for the Analysis of Motion Picture Film or Video Tape. American Psychologist, 24(3), 240-243.

Ekman, P. & Friesen, W. V. (1969). Nonverbal Leakage and Clues to Deception. Psychiatry, 32(1), 88-106.

Ekman, P. & Friesen, W. V. (1969). The Repertoire of Nonverbal Behavior: Categories, Origins, Usage, and Coding. Semiotica, 1(1), 49-98.

Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., & Taussig, T. G. (1969). VID-R and SCAN: Tools and Methods for the Automated Analysis of Visual Records. In Gerbner, G., Holsti, O., Krippendorff, K., Paisley, W., & Stone, P. (Eds.), The Analysis of Communication Content (pp. 297-312). New York: Wiley & Sons.

Ekman, P., Sorenson, E. R., & Friesen, W. V. (1969). Pan-Cultural Elements in Facial Display of Emotions. Science, 164, 86-88.

Ekman, P. & Friesen, W. V. (1968). Nonverbal Behavior in Psychotherapy Research. In Shlien, J. (Ed.), Research in Psychotherapy, Vol. 3 (pp. 179-216). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Ekman, P. & Friesen, W. V. (1967). Head and Body Cues in the Judgement of Emotion: A Reformulation. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 24, 711-724.

Verba, S., Brody, R. A., Parker, E. B., Nie, N. H., Polsby, N. W., Ekman, P., & Black, G. S. (1967). Public Opinion and the War in Vietnam. The American Political Science Review, 61(2), 317-333.

Ekman, P., Tufte, E. R., Archibald, K., & Brody, R. A. (1966). Coping with Cuba: divergent policy preferences of state political leaders. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 10(2), 180-197.

Ekman, P. (1965). Communication through nonverbal behavior: A Source of information about an interpersonal relationship. In Tomkins, S. S. & Izard, C. E. (Eds.), Affect, Cognition And Personality: Empirical Studies (pp. 390-442). Oxford, England: Springer.

Ekman, P. (1965). Differential Communication of Affect by Head and Body Cues. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2(5), 726-735.

Weiss, R. L., Ekman, P., Ullman, L. P., & Krasner, L. (1965). The Context of Reinforcement in Verbal Conditioning. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 21(1), 99-100.

Ekman, P. (1964). Body Position, Facial Expression, and Verbal Behavior During Interviews.
Abnormal and Social Psychology, 68(3), 295-301.

Ekman, P., Cohen, L., Moos, R., Raine, W., Schlesinger, M., & Stone, G. (1963). Divergent Reactions to the Threat of War. Science, 139(3550), 88-94.

Ekman, P., Krasner, L., & Ullman, L. P. (1963). Interaction of Set and Awareness as Determinants of Response to Verbal Conditioning. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66(4), 387-389.

Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., & Lutzker, D. R. (1962). Psychological Reactions to Infantry Basic Training. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 26(1), 103-104.

Ekman, P. (1961). Research As Therapy?. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 133(3), 229-232.

Ekman, P. (1957). A Methodological Discussion of Nonverbal Behavior. The Journal of Psychology, 43, 141-149.